Monday, March 31, 2008

Memory and BDNF

Following up on part of this note, where I discussed relationships between memory and stress, it turns out that there are some interesting things known, related to this, which involve a "neurotrophic factor" called BDNF.

In fact, there's quite a lot to say. Let's begin with an explanation of some terms, a little about BDNF, and a look at some research from the past several years on the relationship between BDNF and memory. Later we'll take up more on how stress and depression enter the picture.

A neurotrophin is a type of protein that promotes the survival of neurons – which is in general a pretty good thing. (We'll get to examples in a moment.) One type of neurotrophin, known as a "neutotropic factor", is a growth factor that affects neurons in particular.

More generally, a growth factor is a proteins that signals certain types of cells to survive, differentiate, or grow. A growth factor that helps a cell survive does so by inhibiting programmed cell death. Other growth factors promote cell division, which results in growth of the tissue that contains the affected cells. Yet other growth factors may induce cells to differentiate into cells of a more specialized type.

An important example of a general growth factor is IGF-1, also known as "insulin-like growth factor 1", which we'll be looking at more extensively in upcoming posts.

In this post we're going to consider the specific neurotrophic factor known as BDNF, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

Research has shown that BDNF plays a role in memory formation and in the connection between stress and depression. For example, in rats the stress hormone corticosterone seems to decrease the expression of BDNF, and if stress is persistent, this eventually leads to the atrophy of the hippocampus. Since the hippocampus plays an important role in long term memory, this is one way in which stress can negatively impact memory.

Atrophy of the hippocampus has also been found in humans suffering from chronic depression. There is evidence that suggests a deficiency of BDNF may be at least in part implicated in such depression. For example, various factors (such as the neurotransmitter glutamate, exercise, calorie restriction, and antidepressant drugs) are known to stimulate expression of BDNF – and often ameliorate depression as well.

There's a lot of science behind all this. Let's just look at a few research announcements from the past several years to get a feel for the interactions of BDNF and memory.


Key Pathway In Synaptic Plasticity Discovered (5/23/07)
The researchers studied a major developmental event in newborn rodents. A rapid increases in synapse strength and visual circuit refinement occurs quickly after the animal's eyes first open. It was already known that the PSD-95 protein rushes to visual system synapses soon after eye opening. PSD-95 is a scaffold protein that anchors several types of receptors. Some of these receptors are for the neurotransmitter glutamate, and there is also the TrkB receptor for BDNF (and other neurotrophins).

A positive feedback loop is initiated, in which the NMDA glutamate receptor activates BDNF. BDNF then triggers a signaling pathway involving the kinases PI3 and Akt. This pathway leads to more PSD-95 production, completing the loop. The net result is to make synapses more responsive to BDNF, followed by production of additional PSD-95. Once this loop is started at just a few of a neuron's synapses, the rush of PSD-95 to other excitory synapses of the neuron is on. In this way a few very active synapses can prime larger regions of a neuron for long-term synaptic strengthening in response to subsequent stimulation in the newborn animal.

Proteins Necessary For Brain Development Found To Be Critical For Long-term Memory (9/5/06)
This research indicates that BDNF, which is crucial for the growth of brain cells during development, is also equally important for the formation of long-term memories. The study was performed on the common marine snail Aplysia. When the snails are electrically shocked, the neurotransmitter serotonin is released and promotes the formation of long-term memories associated with the shocks. But when the researchers blocked interaction between BDNF and its TrkB receptor, long-term memories did not form, even though serotonin was still released at synapses. This indicates that serotonin alone was not sufficient for long-term memory formation. Short-term memory formation was not affected. Further investigation showed that interfering with the BDNF receptors blocked long-term enhancement of the connections between the brain cells in the reflex circuit normally induced by the shock treatment.

Drug Triggers Body's Mechanism To Reverse Aging Effect On Memory Process (7/27/06)
A class of drugs known as "ampakines" (so-called because they target AMPA receptors) has been under study and development since the early 1990s to deal with neurological conditions, such as schizophrenia, problems of attention span and alertness, and memory impairment associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The research reported here was conducted by a team that included Gary Lynch, who has long been associated with investigation of the biological bases of learning and memory. (See here for more about Lynch and long-term memory.)

In this study, rats were treated for four days with an ampakine drug. Of particular interest was the effect of the drug on the hippocampus of the brain, because of its known importance in the formation of long-term memories. In the hippocampus areas of rats treated with the drug, it was found that (compared to controls) there was a significant increase both of levels of BDNF and of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapses (an indicator of memory formation). Further, even though the drug had a known half-life of only 15 minutes, elevated levels of BDNF and LTP were observed as long as 18 hours after drug administration was stopped.

Tiny RNA Molecules Fine-tune The Brain's Synapses (1/24/06)
Synapses between two neurons are formed between locations at the tip of an axon of one neuron (the "presynaptic" neuron) and a dendrite on the body of another neuron (the "postsynaptic" neuron). In order to form a complete synapse, it is necessary for there to be protrusions called "dendritic spines" on dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron. In the process of synaptic signaling, it is these spines that absorb neurotransmitter molecules released by the axon of the presynaptic neuron. Consequently, any mechanism that affects the density of spines on dendrites will affect the total number of synapses that can form between neurons.

It had previously been established that BDNF activates a protein kinase called Limk1, which in turn promotes the growth of dendritic spines and hence the ability of synapses to form. This research on rats studied the effect of the microRNA miR-134 on growth of dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons. It was found that when neurons were exposed to miR-134, spine volume significantly decreased, and synapses weakened. Conversely, when miR-134 was inhibited, spines increased in size, strengthening synapses. However, increased levels of BDNF negated the effects of miR-134, indicating that miR-134 achieved its effect by suppressing Limk1.

More: Spine control


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1 Comments:

Blogger Ginger Campbell, MD said...

This is an excellent post that I intend to share with my listeners. If you are interested in the relationship between exercise and the release of BDNF you might want to check out Episode 33 of the Brain Science Podcast at http://brainsciencepodcast.com/. It is an interview with Harvard's Dr. John Ratey, author of Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain (2008).

4/07/2008 07:50:00 PM  

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